Before you get started

Explaining my use of Etymology in the Mirror Study Bible

Etymology is the study of the origin of words in order to help understand their history and original meaning.

The word etymology is the Greek word, ἐτυμολογία etumologia. It too, like most Greek words, have various components, ἔτυμον, etumon, true, and λογια logia, words. Thus, the study of the true meaning of words.

Obviously, the meaning of many words have evolved over the centuries in their use, and have in time departed from their original meaning. Especially in modern languages we have ample examples where the accepted word today, bears no relevance whatsoever to the meaning of their individual components.

However, many still do. My passion therefore, as a treasure hunter, is to uncover and unveil these gems, always bearing in mind the ultimate relevance found in context.  

Etymology is the study of the origin of words in order to help understand their history and original meaning.

The word etymology is the Greek word, ἐτυμολογία etumologia. It too, like most Greek words, have various components, ἔτυμον, etumon, true, and λογια logia, words. Thus, the study of the true meaning of words.

Obviously, the meaning of many words have evolved over the centuries in their use, and have in time departed from their original meaning. Especially in modern languages we have ample examples where the accepted word today bears no relevance whatsoever to the meaning of their individual components. However, many still do. 

My passion therefore, as a treasure hunter, is to uncover and unveil these gems, always bearing in mind the ultimate relevance found in context. 

The context of this conversation is beautifully reflected in John 1:1-3 & 14, as well as Hebrews 1:1-3. And is also powerfully endorsed in Paul’s focus in his writings.

The destiny of the word has always been flesh – the Incarnation. [Latin, en carne]

John 1:14 Suddenly the invisible, eternal Word takes on visible form – the Incarnation, on display in a flesh and blood Person, as in a mirror. In him, and now confirmed in us. The most accurate tangible exhibit of God’s eternal thought finds expression in human life. The Word became a human being; we are his address; he resides in us. He captivates our gaze. The glory we see there is not a religious replica; he is the authentic begotten Son. The glory (that we lost in Adam) returns in fullness. Only grace can communicate truth in such a complete context.

Colossians 1:19 Jesus is God’s happy delight to be human. Also Colossians 2:9,10. See 2 Corinthians 3:2,3 The living Epistle speaks a global, mother-tongue language! This conversation is embroidered in your inner consciousness. (It is the life of your design that grace echoes within you.)

In human conscience, we have the invisible written logos fully preserved and recorded to reflect in the “Aha!” resonance-echo, within us! We are compatible by design to hear with “inner-ears”.  

Romans 1:19  God is not a stranger to anyone; whatever can be known of God is 1manifest in man. God has 2revealed it in the very core of our being which bears witness with our conscience. (The word 1phaneros Adjective, from phainō, means to shine like light. Then, the same word again, εφανερωσεν 2ephanerosen, this time in the Aorist Active Indicative Tense of phainō, God has shone this light into our hearts. The TPT reads, God has embedded this knowledge inside every human heart.

Note Romans 2:14  For even a pagan’s natural instinct will confirm the law to be present in their conscience; though they have never even heard about Jewish laws. Thus they prove to be a law unto themselves.

Romans 2:15  The law is so much more than a mere written code; its presence in human 1conscience even in the absence of the written instruction is obvious. (The Latin word 1conscience means to see together – as in the Greek word συνείδω suneidō.)

See also 2 Corinthians 4:4 & 7 and Colossians 1:27. Blindfold-mode simply veils, but does not remove the treasure from where it was hidden all along. Every time we love, encounter joy, or experience beauty, a hint of the nature of our Maker reflects within us; even in the experience of the unbeliever. In the incarnation Jesus unveils God’s likeness, not his “otherness”, in human form as in a mirror. 

Paul wrote two thousand years ago…

Ephesians 3:4  In 1pondering these words you will 2perceive my 3insight into the mystery of Christ. 

([1] The word, 1anaginosko, suggests an upward [ana] knowledge [ginoskō]; to know again, to recognize, to read with recognition. See my Notes on An Open Heaven at the end of Revelation 13.

[2] You will comprehend, νοιέω 2noeō, to perceive; thoughtful understanding. [This is also the word connected with the preposition meta [with] in μετανοέω metanoeō, to awaken in your understanding. It does NOT mean, to “repent”! See Luke 5:32].

[3] Paul anticipates the impact of his own insight in his audience! The word, insight, 3sunesis, from συνίημι suniemi – sun + eimi, together with my “I am-ness”, to resonate; which means a flowing together as of two streams – a seamless merging; a fusion of thought; a joint-seeing; to sync together in order to form a mental picture. It suggests the grasp and comprehension that happens from comparing and combining things. A word only Paul uses; also his colleague, Dr Luke, in Luke 2:47, as well as another disciple of Paul, Mark who uses it in Mark 12:33, “To love him with all your heart, with all your understanding, with all your strength, and to love your neighbor as you love yourself; this is more important than all the burnt offerings and sacrifices.”)

Luke, interviewing the two men who encountered Jesus as a “stranger” along their journey from Jerusalem to Emmaus, where Jesus endorses the entire context of Scripture

Luke 24:32  They erupted in an avalanche of words, Was our hearts not set ablaze – even while he was speaking along the way and opening the Scriptures to us. (οὐχὶ ἡ καρδία ἡμῶν καιομένη ἦν – ὡς ἐλάλει – διήνοιγεν) The Authorized Version, as usual, pays no attention to the graphic Imperfect Tenses here. They are speaking of something which was in progress: “was not our heart burning [finite verb and Participle] while he was speaking, and was opening the Scriptures?” [Marvin Vincent.]

Jesus could easily have just tapped them on the shoulder at the beginning of their journey and immediately told them who he was! But he reveals himself in their familiar language, the Scriptures, knowing that the entire context of the Incarnation is grounded in these profound, prophetic writings. Also, this beats any “angelic visitation” hands down! 

It pleased the father, Paul later recalls, to unveil his son IN me! The fire now kindled in their hearts, would become a mirror-encounter where the mystery that was hidden for ages and generations would gush out from within them. Colossians 1:27.)

In the study of the ancient languages of Scripture the etymology of very many words in Koine Greek as well as the meaning of individual letters of the Ancient as well as the square letter Aramaic/Hebrew alphabet, carry significant relevance.

Notes on the Ancient Hebrew Alphabet: With the Babylonian exile, 586 BC, the Jews gradually stopped using the Paleo-Hebrew script, based on ancient pictographic letters, [10th century BCE – CE 135] otherwise known as the Phoenician alphabet and instead adopted a square letter form of the Aramaic alphabet. See my introduction to Luke chapter 3 in the Mirror Bible…

Notes on Koine Greek LXX Old Testament and the New Testament:

Koine Greek evolved from the spread of Greek following the conquests of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC and served as the lingua franca of much of the Mediterranean region and the Middle East during the following centuries.

Koine is the language of the Christian New Testament, of the Septuagint LXX (the 3rd-century BC. Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible), and of most early Christian theological writing by the Church Fathers.

I believe that, just like gold-containing ore, so the Bible contains the Word. Though the ore is a most important pointer to the gold, it cannot be confused with the gold. Jesus is the Word unveiled – He studied scripture with a different intent; he knew that he was reflected there! Familiar with the text, he brought context! Psalm 40:7 and Hebrews 10:7; also, John 5:39.

During my 3-year studies at the University of Pretoria [1975-1977], I was triggered with the intrigue of the richness of the language, and how so much of the nuances and early meanings of words have remained hidden and were ultimately lost in many translations over the years.

I remember one day in an Assembly of God church, which we joined just after we got married [January 1979], we attended a Bible-study meeting. I excitedly shared from John 14:2, The word, μονή monē, is only used here and in verse 23. The verb form, menō suggests a seamless union. [John uses menō more than anyone else.] As in the next chapter, John 15:4. …the branch abiding in the vine. 

So, Jesus was not about to become a building contractor in heaven. He is not in the mansion building-business, as some translations will imply! He is standing on the threshold of the cross; in his death and resurrection he would prepare a place for us of restored, intimate oneness with himself and the Father in Spirit and in truth. Now we may be where he is, wrapped up in the same, inseparable union. See John 14:20.

Our pastor immediately stopped me saying, “If the King James says it’s a mansion then that’s what it is!”

This early encounter inspired me even more on my journey of regularly referencing the Hebrew and Greek text in studying the Bible. During our Acts Team days [December ’85 – Jan ‘91], I translated several of the Pauline Epistles which were never published; although printed along with other booklets which I wrote and distributed amongst our students.

Oh, how I love the word!

Just look at the first word in the Hebrew Bible, [“in the beginning”] בראשׁית Bereshet, be, (in) rosh (head) We are the idea of Elohim!

As stated earlier, etymology is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time. By an extension, the term “the etymology of [a word]” means the origin of the particular word.

My point is, the words that I pursue in the Greek components are not to contradict the character of God but to rather discover how the context is endorsed in our understanding of the word.

It is my delight, over the years, to seek out these treasures.  Some of which you will not find in a lexicon or a dictionary.

Here are a few examples of my use of etymology, with notes following: 

1/ χαρακτηρ charaktēr;  

2/ ἐπιχορηγέω  epichoregeō 

3/ ἀγαπάω agapaō

4/ ἁμαρτία hamartia

5/ ἐξουσία 1exousia & ἔξεστι 2exesti [exact same components]

6/ ἐκκλησία ekklesia 

7/ ᾅδης  Hadēs

8/ paradise παράδεισος

9/ παρουσία parousia

10/ δίκη dikē

11/ μετάνοια metanoia

12/ διάκονος diakonos


1/ The word χαρακτηρ charaktēr 

From χάραγμα charagma – to engrave – translated “mark” of the beast, in Revelation 13:16,17.

Hebrews 1:3 The Messiah-message is what has been on the tip of the Father’s tongue all along. Now he is the crescendo of God’s conversation with us and gives context and content to the authentic, prophetic thought. Everything that God has in mind for mankind is voiced in him. Jesus is God’s language. He is the 1radiant and flawless mirror expression of the person of God. He makes the 2glorious intent of God visible and exhibits the 3character and every attribute of Elohim in human form. His being announces 4our redeemed innocence; having accomplished purification for sins, he sat down, enthroned in the boundless measure of his majesty in the right and of God as his executive authority. He is the force of the universe, 5upholding everything that exists. This conversation is the dynamic that sustains the entire cosmos. 

([1] The word απαυγασμα 1apaugasma, only occurs here, and once only in the Greek Septuagint, LXX, in the book of Wisdom 7:26, “For she is the brightness of the everlasting light, the unspotted mirror of the power of God, and the image of his goodness.” [The Book of Wisdom 7:26.] 

[2] The word,  δόξα 2doxa glory is the expression of the divine attributes collectively. It is the unfolded fullness of the divine perfections. Vincent. 

[3] The word χαρακτηρ 3charaktēr from χάραγμα charagma – to engrave – translated “mark” of the beast, in Revelation 13:16,17. Either the character of the Father or the character of the fallen mind will influence our actions (hand) because it is what engages our thoughts (forehead). 

[4] “Having accomplished purification of sins, he sat down …” His throne is the very endorsement of mankind’s redeemed innocence. See Ephesians 1:20-23; LXX Psalm 109:1.

[5]  The words, φέρων τε τὰ πάντα 5pherō te ta panta5upholding all things, are not static, “they imply sustaining, but also movement. It deals with a burden, not as a dead weight, but as in continual movement; as Weiss puts it, ‘with the all in all its changes and transformations throughout the aeons.’” Vincent.

More than two thousand years ago the conversation that had begun before time was recorded—sustained in fragments of thought throughout the ages, whispered in prophetic language, chiseled  in stone and inscribed in human conscience and memory—became a man. Beyond the tablet of stone, the papyrus scroll or parchment roll, human life has become the articulate voice of God. Jesus is the crescendo of God’s conversation with mankind; he gives context and content to the authentic thought. His name declares his mission. 

As Savior of the world he truly redeemed the image and likeness of the invisible God and made him apparent again in human form as in a mirror.)

2/ The word, ἐπιχορηγέω epichoregeō has 3 components:

This is a keyword in Peter’s powerful illustration in 2 Peter 1:1-10, which was traditionally translated, to ‘add to’, in verse 5.

The etymological values of this word clearly describe a conductor of music. Consider its three components: 1epi, a Preposition of position, over, in charge, indicating continuous influence upon; [with the idea of a teacher standing in front of a class of students] + 2chorus, choir, orchestra, or dance + 3agoo, meaning to lead as a shepherd leads his sheep.  

Sadly, by translating epichoregeō as, “add to your faith virtue, etc…”, the Authorized Bibles all repeat the same mistake, which has kept multitudes of sincere believers trapped in the treadmill-mode of striving to become; instead of discovering who you are and what you already have!

This is after Peter clearly states in verse 1 that, to begin with, we already are equal shareholders in a faith of exactly the same, priceless value.

Then, in verse 3 he states that it is by God’s divine engineering, that we are gifted with all that it takes to live life to the full. 

Gift language puts reward language out of business!

One cannot add to something that is already complete. However, one can engage in the adventure of a limitless discovery.

I often use an 8-piece Babushka doll to illustrate that there is so much more than just the outer image. This is a traditional Babushka Russian doll, beautifully carved out of wood and painted with colorful images. 

The outer image is repeated again and again in smaller, identical inner pieces – each one fitting perfectly into the other. Until it almost seems impossible that yet another piece could follow the little figures that emerge. Our 5-year-old granddaughter, Nicola calls this, the Reflection Doll.

The outer piece of the Babushka represents the Faith which has given everyone an equal standing through God’s righteousness and not our efforts….  [verse 1] 

This now beautifully unfolds into these amazing attributes which each person is already and equally gifted with. Now, acquaint yourself with these. 

1/ Faith; 2/ Elevation; 3/ Spiritual insight; 4/ Inner strength; 5/ Patient perseverance; 6/ Meaningful devotion and worship; 7/ Genuine fondness for others and finally, the heart of faith is 8/ the Agape of God.

3/ The Greek verb ἀγαπάω Agapaō to love, [noun, Agapē] 

The word 1agapaō is a compound word from agō, which means to lead as a shepherd leads his sheep, and paō, which means rest. His love leads me into his rest; into the full realization of his finished work. Agape is Psalm 23 in one word. “My Shepherd-Lord leads me beside still waters where my soul is restored; [by the waters of reflection my soul remembers who I am]. Now I can face the valley of the shadow of death and fear no evil.”

It does not derive from the Hebrew ענב Agab as the dictionaries would imply – Agab is a word that Ezekiel uses 6 times and Jeremiah only once; and every time it is used for lust as in whoredom! 

The Hebrew word for love, closest to Agape is the word, אהב Ahab which is used 207 times.

See my use of the word agapē here:

John 14:23 Jesus answered him, “This is so much more than a mere casual, distant and suspicious, or indifferent observation of me; this is about someone’s  1passionate, loving desire, finding its rest in me; they will treasure my words and encounter my Father’s love reflecting in them, and my Father and I will 2appear 3face to face to them, and make our 4abode 5with each one individually.” To love passionately, 1agapaō from agō and paō, to lead to rest [Psalm 23] – this word also links to the Hebrew word for love, אהב ahab, to love with passionate desire; like a beating heart or breathing chest. Genesis 22;2 Abraham’s love for Isaac. Jeremiah 31:3 “I have loved you with an everlasting love: therefore, with lovingkindness have I drawn you.”

4/ Then the word ἁμαρτία hamartia

The root of sin is to believe a lie about yourself. To be out of sync with the life of your design.

The word sin, is the word hamartia, from ha, negative or without and meros, portion or form; thus to be without your allotted portion or without form, pointing to a disoriented, distorted, bankrupt identity; the word meros, is the stem of morphē, as in 2 Corinthians 3:18the word metamorphē, with form, which is the opposite of hamartia – without form. Sin is to live out of context with the blueprint of one’s design; to behave out of tune with God’s original harmony. 

See Deuteronomy 32:18, “You have forgotten the Rock that begot you and have gotten out of step with the God who danced with you.” Hebrew,  חול  khul, also means to dance, as in Judges 21:21. 

5/ The word ἐξουσία 1exousia & ἔξεστι 2exesti

Both have the same 2 components:

[1] The 1st one, exousia, is often translated as authority. From ek, a Preposition pointing to the origin or source, and eimi, I am; thus, out of I am. This gives legitimacy and authority to our sonship. See John 1:12, … God gives the assurance that they are indeed his offspring, begotten of him; he sanctions the legitimacy of their sonship.

[2] Then also the word, ἔξεστι exesti which is often translated “lawful”. See 2 Corinthians 12:4 This person was caught up into paradise. There he heard words that could not be articulated into language; he understood a conversation that did not originate in human thought. The word ἔξεστι exesti, again has the same two components as the word, exousia, ek, a Preposition pointing to the origin of something, and eimi, I am, in this case, Paul points to the origin of our beingness in God’s authentic thought. See 1 Corinthians 2:7-13.)

6/  Here’s what Jesus says about the Ekklesia:

The 1st time this word is mentioned, is in Matthew 16:13-19. Here also, Jesus asks the most important question in the Bible “Who do people say, that I, the son of man, am?” 

Luke 9:19 They replied, “Some think that you could possibly be John the Baptist reincarnated, or even a re-appearance of Elijah, or another of the ancient prophets resurrected.”

Luke 9:20 “And you; who am I to you?” Jesus asked them; Peter answered, “The Messiah of God.”

Matthew 16:17 Blessed are you, Simon, son of Jonah. [Bar Jonah, his surname identity] Flesh and blood did not reveal this to you, but my Father. (No, I’m not a reincarnate prophet. I am the Incarnate Word in whom all things exist – I gave you birth.)

Matthew 16:18 Now that you know who I am, allow me to introduce you to you, Mr. Rock! You’re a chip [petros] of the old Block [petra]. And upon this revelation, that the son of man is the son of God, I will build my Ekklesia, and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it. 

Matthew 16:19 [In this revelation, of seeing mankind’s authentic identity,] I give you to the keys of the dominion of the heavens, and whatever you bind upon the earth shall be, 1having been bound in the heavens, and whatever you loose upon the earth shall be, 1having been loosed in the heavens.  

The word, traditionally translated, church, ἐκκλησία ekklesia, from ek, origin and kaleō, to surname; [in this context it is clearly reflected in Jesus saying to Simon, son of Jonah…]original identity. The Perfect Passive tense used in both, having been bound and having been loosed, clearly reveals what Jesus accomplished once and for all in his triumphant mission. 

Thus, the Church is the voice of God echoing in man and reveals man’s true spiritual origin and identity.

The keys Jesus refers to here, are the same keys John recorded in Revelation 1:18.

Revelation 1:17 Observing all this, I fell at his feet like a dead man. Then, 1kneeling down, he ordained me with his right hand upon me and said, “Do not be afraid. I am the origin and the 2conclusion of all things. (See Isaiah 44:6. The word 1tithēmi from theō, to kneel down, lay down, to ordain, purpose, put, set forth. See John 15:16, I have ordained you – I have strategically positioned you. Also 1 Tim 2:7 I am an “ordained” preacher. 

Again the word, 2eschatos; Jesus, as the Alpha and Omega, defines eschatology.)

Revelation 1:18 I am also the Living One; I died and now, see, here I am alive unto the ages of the ages and I have the keys wherewith I have disengaged the gates of 1Hades and death. (This profound statement of Jesus in verses 17 & 18, is the platform, theme and focus of the entire book. To distract from these words of Jesus is to miss the point of the Revelation. 1See commentary note in verse 20 and Revelation 2:7 on the gates of Hades. Multitudes are in hell on this side of the grave; we have the keys to unlock a door that was already opened when Jesus went there as a man to free the human race from Adam to Noah, to now. Wow, what joy to introduce people to the freedom of sonship. Let’s not make the other brother in Luke 15 our reference when we can know the Father’s heart.)

7/ The word  ᾅδης  Hadēs 

It has 2 components, ha, negative/not, and eidō; thus, not to see.

Jesus says in Matthew 16:18 I say, you are Rock, a chip [petros] of the old Block [petra]. And upon this revelation, that the son of man is the son of God, I will build my Ekklesia, and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it. (In a walled city, the gates are the most strategic point – if the gates are disengaged, the city is taken. Thus, the blindfold mode of mankind’s forgotten identity, will not prevail against your advance.)

8/ The word paradise παράδεισος 

[Which is the opposite of the word Hadēs], from para, closest possible union, and eidō, to see; thus, to see from a place of our union.

9/ The word, παρουσία parousia 

It does not mean 2nd coming!

1 Thessalonians 2:19 We expect nothing less in the context of the gospel than you enjoying a face to face encounter in the 1immediate presence of our Lord Jesus Christ. This is our delight and wreath of honor. (The word 1parousia speaks of the immediate presence of the Lord. From para, a Preposition indicating closest possible proximity; intimate connection, and eimi, I am. 

There is not even a hint of judgment or punishment in this word. While there are great and accurate definitions in Strongs, please do not believe everything you read there. “G3952 parousia from the Present Participle of G3918 pareimi; a being near, that is, advent; often, return; specifically of Christ to punish Jerusalem, or finally the wicked.”!? 

The Greek word parousia, occurs 24 times in the NT, and 22 times it wrongly implies a 2nd coming or coming judgment. 

Only twice it is translated as presence. 2 Corinthians 10:10, Philippians 2:12. 

Of all the English translations that I have checked, only the Young’s Literal has it correct. What a shame that this word has been so dramatically twisted over the years.

In the Greek Septuagint Psalm 138:8 [in the Hebrew it is Psalm 139] reads, If I make my bed in Hades, your presence already fills it. 

LXX – πάρειμι pareimi your immediate presence – I am.

10/ The word, δίκη dikē 

This word suggests, to be judged equal; two parties finding likeness in each other –  which is also the stem for the word, righteousness, dikaiosune . 

Dikē, [pronounced, Dikay] reminds of the Greek goddess of Justice by the same name, typically portrayed holding a scale of balances in her hand. 

In Ancient Greek δείκνυμι – to bring to light, display, portray, represent; to make known, explain, teach, prove. In Sanskrit it means direction. Sadly this word is translated as vengeance, judgment or punishment in the 4 instances it is used in the NT. 

2 Corinthians 6:14 Faith-righteousness has nothing in common with the philosophies of karma and performance-based approval; they could never 1balance the scales or be evenly yoked together in any context. 

(1) The word 1heterozugeō, an unequal or different yoke; from the Hebrew word, zugot, זוּגוֹת indicates pairs of two identical objects; a yoke or a teaching; the yoke of a rabbi or philosopher represented their doctrine; reminds of the Hebrew word for righteousness, tzedek, צדק which also includes the idea of the wooden beam in a scale of balances. “He that judges his neighbor according to the balance of righteousness, or innocence, they judge him according to righteousness.” [T. Bab. Sabbat, fol. 127. 2.] The Greek stem for righteousness is dikē – it is interesting to note that the Greek goddess of Justice is Dikē [pronounced, dikay] and she is always pictured holding a scale of balances in her hand.

2 Corinthians 6:15 There is no 1symphony between the value that Christ reveals in people and the worthlessness that 2Belial represents. Faith-righteousness and work based-righteousness are two opposites; they are conflicting systems that can never match. 

(1) Paul uses the word 1sumphōnēsis from sun, denoting union and phōnē, voice. Faith-righteousness is to know the truth about the redeemed life of your design; whereas a work based-righteousness keeps you trapped in a striving to become something that you already are by design. See 2 Corinthians 11:3 also Genesis 3:22 in notes on Psalm 22:2

(2) The Hebrew word, 2beliya’al בליעל literally means without profit; worthlessness. The etymology of this word has been variously given. The Talmud (Sanh. 111b) regards it as a compound word, made up of “beli” and “’ol” (without a yoke) which is very interesting in this context. Jesus says, “My yoke is easy and my burden is light.” Peterson renders it, “Walk with me and work with me–watch how I do it. Learn the unforced rhythms of grace. I won’t lay anything heavy or ill-fitting on you. Keep company with me and you’ll learn to live freely and lightly. Matthew 11:29,30. The Message.

11/The word μετάνοια metanoia

It does not mean “repentance”! 

It suggests an awakening to the awareness of God’s thoughts; from meta, together with and noieō, to perceive with the mind. It describes the awakening of the mind to that which is true; a re-alignment of one’s reasoning; it is a gathering of one’s thoughts, a co-knowing. Faith is not a decision; it is a discovery. It has nothing in common with the Latin word paenitentia – where the idea of penance and repentance stems from. 

Metanoia means  to discover God’s thoughts about us; literally, to co-know as in Isaiah 55:8-13.

The “metanoia” moment awakens in us an inevitable returning to our redeemed, authentic Genesis. 

See Psalm 22:27 -the ends of the earth shall remember, and return to the Lord! Jeremiah 1:5; 1 Corinthians 13:12 – to know as we have always been known!

The Shepherd never forsook the sheep, we all like sheep have gone astray!

In the Incarnation Jesus pictures the return of the prodigal son:

In his death he descended with us into the lostness of our hell, and conquered every definition of our darkness; then, in his triumphant resurrection, he co-quickened us and returned us to the bosom of the Father; to awaken from the horror of the nightmare!

See my in depth explanation of this word in “Why The Mirror Translation?”

12/The word διάκονος diakonos

The word, 1diakonos, deacon or minister from dia + konis etymologically, through dust [Liddell, Scott & Jones], which I translated in 2 Corinthians 8:4 as tangible, practical or incarnate.
This word commonly translates as ministry, service, running errands.
I believe that the ultimate service is the expression of the heart of God in tangible human form. In essence, New Testament ministry is a celebration of the incarnation.
I have translated this verse many years ago, and only a few days ago [October 2023] discovered the reference in Liddell, Scott & Jones.